Smoking and Candy on Oral Bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Adherence
Authors:John Chan, John Chan, Kay Chanea, Wei-Jen Lin, Ashley Palmire
- John Chan, Professor of Biological Sciences, Cal poly Technic University
- Wei-Jen Lin, Professor of Biological Sciences, Cal poly Technic University
Nicotine and sugar are consumed by millions of people worldwide every day. It has been documented that people who smoke and consume sugar experience more dental caries, which are commonly caused by oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans (SM). Bacterial adherence and biofilm formation on the surface of teeth are the requirements to establish dental carries. The importance of this finding is also accentuated from the recent published literature documenting the link between the dental caries and other more serious ailments such as heart disease and stroke. Nicotine is a major component in cigarettes, and the present research is to study the effect of nicotine and sugar on SM (ATCC 25175) adherence. This finding will help billions of smokers, second hand smokers, and people using nicotine gums and patches worldwide. Log-phase SM at OD 0.48 was used to culture in 96-well plates, and the adherence was quantified using SpectraMax190. Current research has identified optimal variables for SM adherence. Using the optimal variables for SM adherence, the current research has also identified the effect of different sugars on SM adherence in the absence and presence of nicotine. In summary after the statistical analysis, the data indicated that not all sugars have similar effect on SM adherence. SM adherence was significantly higher in the presence of sucrose than in glucose and lactose at all concentrations tested. Sucrose enhanced adherence while lactose and glucose suppressed. At specific nicotine concentration, the additive adherence was observed in the presence of glucose and lactose.